US Department of Energy SRT
The US Department of Energy operates a number of specialized production and storage facilities through out the US. These facilities are tasked with, manufacturing and reworking nuclear weapon components, dismantling nuclear weapon components returned from the national arsenal, serving as the nation's storehouse for special nuclear material (SNM), and storing the nations strategic energy reserve. They also handle a significant amount of classified information and equipment which requires extensive protection in the interest of national security.Due to the nature of their work, these facilities are at risk of becoming a terrorist target. To deal with this potential threat the DOE has mandated that facilities under its control have the ability to respond to special threat situations. As part of that response capability, DOE, and contract security personnel working at DOE facilities, have formed specialized tactical units known as Special Response Teams, or SRTs.
Special Response Teams provide a resolution to incidents that require force options that exceed the capability of SPO-I and SPO-II personnel and/or existing physical security systems. They are trained and equipped to conduct interdiction, interruption, neutralization, and recapture operations directed against an adversary in an effective, aggressive, and timely manner. Special Response Teams are required at facilities or sites which receive, use, or process Category I special nuclear material, Attractiveness Levels A and B.
SRTs are composed of DOE, and contract security personnel who have completed a DOE certified Security Police Officer-III (SPO-III) training program. Many SRT members have served in the military or as local, state and Federal law enforcement officers. It is not uncommon to find former Marines, USAF Security Forces, or special operations personnel serving within their ranks
Special Response Team capability is available on a continuous basis by one of the follwing: an assigned full-time unit, by a unit constituted during a safeguards and security emergency event, or they may be provided by other local, state, and/or Federal law enforcement agencies.
SRT composition and functional capabilities will vary from site to site depending upon the Site Safeguards and Security Plan. Team members are assigned to one of the following team positions :
All team members go through extensive initial training and regular testing to gain and keep their position. Qualification standards include biannual marksmanship testing with all team weapons. Some of those qualifications include precision shooting while on the move (no easy skill), obstacle course that includes engaging various targets while negotiating obstacles, individual and team building assaults (CQB) in both day and night conditions, and various other physical and written test. In all, they receive more that ten times the annual training time of some Law Enforcement departments.
Security Police Officer-III SRT training is conducted at the DOE's Central Training Academy by Wackenhut Services Incorporated (WSI). DOE established the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in October 1984, for the purpose of sharpening the protective skills of the Departments 5,000 security officers who protect nuclear and other sensitive facilities.
Training provided at the Academy is designed to strengthen DOE facilities against potential attacks by terrorists and other adversaries. The academy provides DOE personnel with standardized training in various security disciplines, such the use of deadly force, physical protection, officer survival, unarmed defensive tactics, tactical response training, hostage negotiation, and Explosive Ordnance Disposal.
Security Police Officer III Training Requirements
Prior to initial assignment to an SRA, Sops are required to successfully complete a basic training course designed to provide them with the minimum level of skills and knowledge necessary to competently perform all tasks associated with Special Response Team job responsibilities. The required tasks and minimum levels of competency are based on a site-specific job analysis. SPO-III SRT training programs must be approved by the Head of the Field Element.
Team members may be selected to conduct specialized SPO-III duties for which the following minimum requirements will be met:
Upon successful completion of the Basic SPO-III training course, SPOs are assigned to a specific site/facility team. Team members may also be required to complete additional training courses as a requirement of maintaining their certification.
SPO-III Maintenance Training
After assignment to a Special Response Team, SPO-IIIs are required, as a minimum, to train on a semiannual basis in the following areas:
SPO-IIIs must qualify with all assigned weapons and special weapons semiannually. DOE standard courses, or other approved courses, are used for all assigned and special weapons qualifications.
Managers of sites with Special Response Teams ensure that facilities used by the teams are sufficient to conduct realistic training and qualification programs in a safe manner. These sites include facilities for weapons qualifications, SPO-III Maintenance Training, SPO-III Specialized Training, and Site-Specific Training. SRTs also use local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies' training facilities as alternatives to Departmental owned facilities.
SRT Program Certification/Recertification
Special Response Team training programs are validated/revalidated annually by the local Departmental authority for safeguards and security. A Special Response Team program is considered certified/re certified when the site has completed a validation/revalidation of the following:
Weapons and Equipment
Equipment is selected to facilitate the ability of the Special Response Team to effectively, efficiently, and safely perform both normal and emergency response duties. Team equipment is provided to facilitate and hasten a rapid response. The following is the minimum requirement for each SPO-III: hoods and gloves (fire resistant, durable material); flashlight; goggles/eye protection; tactical boots; chemical agent mask; and equipment systems designed to accommodate the duty functions; e.g., tactical vests.
Personal protective armor offers a level of protection commensurate with the expected level of threat for the particular functions, but in no case less than Type III-A protection. Tactical vests are designed to accommodate the duty functions of the wearer and enhance effectiveness.
Teams are be equipped with digital encryption two-way radio communication. Dedicated channels for team operations include separate team and Precision Rifle/Forward Observer Team channels.
Due to their specialized security responsibilities, DOE SRTs have access to weapons and equipment not normally found in most civilian tactical units. SRTs use Colt .357 Magnum revolvers, SIG P-226 9mm Pistols, M-16 and M-4 5.56mm assault rifles, HK MP-5 and MP-SD 9mm SMGs, Remington 870 12-gauge shotguns, Remington 700 .308 sniper rifles, M-203 40mm grenade launchers, M-60 7.62 mm GPMGs, they are also rumored to have access Stinger surface-to-air missiles.
Several SRTs are equipped with Chenowith Desert Patrol Vehicles (DPV) and Peacekeeper armored cars. The DPVs are used for conducting site security patrols and as a means of rapidly responding to unauthorized entries onto DOE property. The Peacekkepers are used when moving SNM and to provide a method of transporting security personnel.